Integrated Disease Surveillance Quarterly Bulletin (2nd quarter data valid to 30 June 2015)
This second quarter IDS bulletin focuses on selected priority IDSR diseases, events and conditions, including cholera, meningococcal meningitis, and maternal deaths. This edition also presents the status of the epidemiological and virological surveillance of influenza and the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework, eSurveillance initiative, and finally, pictorial health warnings on tobacco packages.
Key messages and implications
During the second quarter of 2015, there were 3117 cases and 55 deaths due to cholera reported from eight countries and the median case fatality ratio (CFR) was 0.8% (Interquartile range (IQR): 0 to 5.2%). There were also 8963 cases and 820 deaths due to meningitis reported from 23 countries (Median CFR = 8.3.1%, IQR 4.2 to 14.5). A total of 1260 maternal deaths were reported; however, only 18 of 47 countries submitted figures. WHO recommends that every maternal death be audited and the revised IDSR guidelines recommend that every maternal death be notified to the WHO. However, it is concerning that the completeness of maternal death notification remains inadequate.
At the time of publication, 17 countries had functional national Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) and Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) surveillance systems which have integrated virological and epidemiological data. Eleven (11) countries were selected to implement laboratory surveillance in the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) project but initial implementation was limited to only Ghana and the United Republic of Tanzania.
eSurveillance is a new initiative that is being implemented in the African Region in the context of IDSR, IHR (2005) and the One Health approach. It is based on the use of electronic systems such as mobile phone SMS messages and other web applications.
eSurveillance was started in 2013 and five countries were selected to pilot its implementation namely Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda. Several activities have been conducted including the dissemination of the eSurveillance assessment report as well as the development and implementation of the national action plan and monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the eSurveillance initiative.
At the time of publication, only four countries have implemented pictorial health warnings on tobacco packages in line with the requirements of Article 11 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and its guidelines. All Member States are urged to accelerate the implementation of the WHO-FCTC.